Global Trends in Marine Plankton Diversity across Kingdoms of Life (Englisch)

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35 pages, 18 figures, 1 table, supplementary information Raw reads of Tara Oceans are deposited at the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA). In particular, newly released 18S rRNA gene metabarcoding reads are available under the number ENA: PRJEB9737. ENA references for the metagenomics reads corresponding to the size fraction < 0.22 μm (for prokaryotic viruses) analyzed in this study are included in Gregory et al. (2019); see their Table S3. ENA references for the metagenomics reads corresponding to the size fraction 0.22-1.6/3 μm (for prokaryotes and giruses) correspond to Salazar et al. (2019) (see Imaging datasets from the nets are available through the collaborative web application and repository EcoTaxa (Picheral et al., 2017) under the address for regent data, within the 3 projects,, for bongo data, and within the 2 projects and for WP2 data. A table with Shannon values and multiple samples identifiers, plus a table with flow cytometry data split in six groups are available ( Contextual data from the Tara Oceans expedition, including those that are newly released from the Arctic Ocean, are available at ; The ocean is home to myriad small planktonic organisms that underpin the functioning of marine ecosystems. However, their spatial patterns of diversity and the underlying drivers remain poorly known, precluding projections of their responses to global changes. Here we investigate the latitudinal gradients and global predictors of plankton diversity across archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes, and major virus clades using both molecular and imaging data from Tara Oceans. We show a decline of diversity for most planktonic groups toward the poles, mainly driven by decreasing ocean temperatures. Projections into the future suggest that severe warming of the surface ocean by the end of the 21st century could lead to tropicalization of the diversity of most planktonic groups in temperate and polar regions. These changes may have multiple consequences for marine ecosystem functioning and services and are expected to be particularly significant in key areas for carbon sequestration, fisheries, and marine conservation ; Tara Oceans (which includes both the Tara Oceans and Tara Oceans Polar Circle expeditions) would not exist without the leadership of the Tara Ocean Foundation and the continuous support of 23 institutes ( We further thank the commitment of the following sponsors: CNRS (in particular Groupement de Recherche GDR3280 and the Research Federation for the Study of Global Ocean Systems Ecology and Evolution FR2022/Tara Oceans-GOSEE), the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Genoscope/CEA, the French Ministry of Research, and the French Government “Investissements d’Avenir” programs OCEANOMICS (ANR-11-BTBR-0008), FRANCE GENOMIQUE (ANR-10-INBS-09-08), MEMO LIFE (ANR-10-LABX-54), the PSL∗ Research University (ANR-11-IDEX-0001-02), as well as EMBRC-France (ANR-10-INBS-02). Funding for the collection and processing of the Tara Oceans data set was provided by NASA Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry Program under grants NNX11AQ14G, NNX09AU43G, NNX13AE58G, and NNX15AC08G (to the University of Maine); the Canada Excellence research chair on remote sensing of Canada’s new Arctic frontier; and the Canada Foundation for Innovation. We also thank agnès b. and Etienne Bourgois, the Prince Albert II de Monaco Foundation, the Veolia Foundation, Region Bretagne, Lorient Agglomeration, Serge Ferrari, Worldcourier, and KAUST for support and commitment. The global sampling effort was enabled by countless scientists and crew who sampled aboard the Tara from 2009–2013, and we thank MERCATOR-CORIOLIS and ACRI-ST for providing daily satellite data during the expeditions. We are also grateful to the countries who graciously granted sampling permission. We thank Stephanie Henson for providing ocean carbon export data and are also grateful to the other researchers who kindly made their data available. We thank Juan J. Pierella-Karlusich for advice regarding single-copy genes. C.d.V. and N.H. thank the Roscoff Bioinformatics platform ABiMS ( for providing computational resources. C.B. acknowledges funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Program (grant agreement 835067) as well as the Radcliffe Institute of Advanced Study at Harvard University for a scholar’s fellowship during the 2016-2017 academic year. M.B.S. thanks the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (award 3790) and the National Science Foundation (awards OCE#1536989 and OCE#1829831) as well as the Ohio Supercomputer for computational support. S.G.A. thanks the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (CTM2017-87736-R), and J.M.G. is grateful for project RT2018-101025-B-100. F.L. thanks the Institut Universitaire de France (IUF) as well as the EMBRC platform PIQv for image analysis. M.C.B., D.S., and J.R. received financial support from the French Facility for Global Environment (FFEM) as part of the “Ocean Plankton, Climate and Development” project. M.C.B. also received financial support from the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel of Brazil (CAPES 99999.000487/2016-03) ; Peer Reviewed