Identification of Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype III and two novel genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in swine (Englisch)

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Samples of intestinal content from thirty fattened pigs of six farms slaughtered at an abattoir in North-Western Germany, and faecal samples of four pigs kept as laboratory animals at the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR, Berlin, Germany) were investigated for the occurrence of microsporidia by light microscopy, PCR and sequencing. A modified Webers trichrome staining and the immunohistochemistry (the Avidin-Biotin-Peroxidase-Complex technique with a polyclonal anti-Encephalitozoon cuniculi-serum and monoclonal antibodies against Encephalitozoon intestinalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi) was used as a screening method for the light microscopical detection of these pathogenic eukaryotes. By this light microscopically methods microsporidia suspected organisms were found in all samples (100%). By the use of PCR, microsporidia were identified in fourteen samples (41.2%). The prevalence of microsporidia infections among the farms diversifies from 0 to 80% as considered by PCR. E. bieneusi was the most prevalent species and was identified in twelve fattened pigs (40%) from five of the six tested farms (83.3%) and in two of the four laboratory animals (50%). Three of the E. bieneusi species belonged to the genotype O, one to the genotype E, and one to the genotype F. Two isolates were identified as novel genotypes and two samples showed a mixed infection of different genotypes. In three faecal samples of the pigs from two farms E. cuniculi genotype III was identified. One sample contained both microsporidia species. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the genotype III of E. cuniculi was identified in swine