Late-Onset Metachromatic Leukodystrophy with Early Onset Dementia Associated with a Novel Missense Mutation in the Arylsulfatase A Gene (Englisch)

in Journal of Alzheimer's Disease ; 51 , 3 ; 683-687
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease
IOS Press , Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 2016

A 48-year-old male patient presented with personality changes and progressive memory loss over 2 years with initially suspected Hashimoto’s encephalopathy. Strategy of diagnostic workup of early onset dementia included dementia from neurodegenerative, neuroinflammatory, metabolic/toxic, and psychiatric origin. The patient’s neurological exam was normal. MRI revealed a leukencephalopathy, predominantly in the frontal periventricular white matter, without notable changes over 2 years. On neurophysiological examination, prolonged central conduction times and a sensorimotor polyneuropathy were noted. Neuropsychological impairment included disorientation in place and a reduced short time memory. Behavioral alterations were predominated by sudden mood changes and disinhibition. Cerebrospinal fluid was normal. Despite presence of thyroid autoantibodies, glucocorticosteroid treatment did not improve the dementia. A metachromatic leukodystrophy was diagnosed by decreased arylsulfatase-A activity in leucocytes/fibroblasts and identification of a compound heterozygous mutation in the ARSA gene: c.542T>G (exon 3) and the novel mutation c.1013T>C (exon 6). Pathogenic function was suggested by bioinformatic mutation search. In a patient with early onset dementia, strategic diagnostic workup including genetic assessment revealed an adult-onset metachromatic leukodystrophy with a novel mutation in the arylsulfatase A gene.

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