Combining Ionizing Irradiation and Ultrasound Technologies: Effect on Beans Hydration and Germination (Englisch)

In: Journal of Food Science   ;  84 ,  11  ;  3179-3185  ;  2019

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The present work studied, for the first time, the effect of two technologies on the hydration and germination process of beans: ionizing irradiation and ultrasound. In addition, this work proposed a possible biological effect of ultrasound to describe its effect on grain hydration. Carioca beans were irradiated at doses of 2.3 and 3.8 kGy using γ‐rays, establishing different metabolic activities for the beans. Then, they were hydrated with and without the ultrasound technology (91 W/L and 25 kHz) at 25 °C. Both the hydration and germination kinetics were evaluated considering the application of both technologies alone and in combination. As results, irradiation did not significantly affect (P > 0.05) the hydration rate, the equilibrium moisture, or the lag phase time, but ultrasound affected them, reducing 50% of the processing time. On the other hand, only the equilibrium moisture was slightly reduced by the interactive effect of irradiation and ultrasound technology, which was discussed based on different metabolism levels. Furthermore, the germination process of carioca bean was hindered by both the studied variables, reducing its germination capacity to 0% in some cases. Therefore, by studying the effect of ultrasound on beans with different active metabolism (due to different irradiation doses), it was suggested that both physical and biological mechanisms are involved during hydration process and that both can be affected by ultrasound. Further, irradiation could be used on carioca beans with objectives such as avoid germination, insects, and microorganism's growth, without an important effect on the hydration kinetics.

Ultrasound technology has demonstrated to accelerate the soaking process of several legume grains. However, sometimes, grains are irradiated for disinfestation purpose to improve their shelf life. Indeed, irradiation can change the grain properties as the cooking time, hydration time, and germination capacity. Therefore, this work verified if irradiation changes the desirable effect of ultrasound on grain processing: soaking and germination. Moreover, this work novelty is also based on describing the phenomena: by proposing a possible biological effect, further approaches to improve the grain processing can be achieved.

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