The potential for microwave technology and the ideal profile method to aid in salt reduction (Englisch)

In: Journal of Food Science   ;  85 ,  3  ;  600-610  ;  2020

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This study was the first to evaluate the influence of the combination strategies of flavor addition and microwave‐assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) processing for salt reduction implications. In freshly prepared mashed potatoes, a 30% and 50% salt reduction (w/w) in comparison to a 100% salt sample with three flavor variations (no additional flavor, garlic, and pepper) were investigated. Also, using the ideal profile method (IPM), the influence of MATS versus retort processing, in comparison to a freshly prepared sample, and flavor addition on mashed potato sensory properties and acceptance was investigated. Chemical characterization using the electronic tongue for nonvolatile compounds and headspace solid‐phase microextraction (HS‐SPME)/gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) for volatile analysis was completed. IPM revealed the ideal data were consistent at both the panel and consumer levels from a sensory and hedonic perspective. Results demonstrated the ideal mashed potato product would remain low in bitterness but have more intense pepper and potato aromas and flavors than the current samples evaluated. The salt level could be reduced by 50% while still maintaining flavor and overall acceptance in freshly prepared samples, but this was accompanied by a loss in saltiness intensity perception. The saltiness intensity was not different from the freshly prepared samples when processed via MATS but was different when processed by the retort. For chemical characterization, the electronic tongue showed a high discrimination index (>89%) and correlated highly (>0.8) with many sensory attributes. As salt concentration in the mashed potatoes decreased, the recovery of volatile compounds decreased. The present work contributes to the understanding of product reformulation for the purpose of salt reduction.

Product developers need strategies to bring salt down to target levels while maintaining consumer acceptance. The combination strategies of flavor addition and MATS processing may allow for a new strategy to assist product developers in reaching salt reduction targets. Furthermore, developers should bear in mind that noticeable intensity differences may not alter the preference for the product. Thus, intensity differences that result in changes in acceptance should be the focus of quality insurance rather than utilizing just noticeable differences.

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