Spin–orbit coupling rule in bound fermion systems (English)

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In: Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics   ;  43 ,  8  ;  085101  ;  2016
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Spin–orbit coupling characterizes quantum systems such as atoms, nuclei, hypernuclei, quarkonia, etc, and is essential for understanding their spectroscopic properties. Depending on the system, the effect of spin–orbit coupling on shell structure is large in nuclei, small in quarkonia and perturbative in atoms. In the standard non-relativistic reduction of the single-particle Dirac equation, we derive a universal rule for the relative magnitude of the spin–orbit effect that applies to very different quantum systems, regardless of whether the spin–orbit coupling originates from the strong or electromagnetic interaction. It is shown that in nuclei the near equality of the mass of the nucleon and the difference between the large repulsive and attractive potentials explain the fact that spin–orbit splittings are comparable to the energy spacing between major shells. For a specific ratio between the particle mass and the effective potential whose gradient determines the spin–orbit force, we predict the occurrence of giant spin–orbit energy splittings that dominate the single-particle excitation spectrum.

Table of contents – Volume 43, Issue 8

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084001
Letter of intent for KM3NeT 2.0
S Adrián-Martínez / M Ageron / F Aharonian / S Aiello / A Albert / F Ameli / E Anassontzis / M Andre / G Androulakis / M Anghinolfi et al. | 2016
084002
Shape coexistence at low spin in the Z = 50 region and its spectroscopic signatures
P E Garrett | 2016
085001
Tagging b quarks at extreme energies without tracks
B Todd Huffman / Charles Jackson / Jeff Tseng | 2016
085002
Optical dispersion of composite particles consisting of millicharged constituents
Audrey K Kvam / David C Latimer | 2016
085101
Spin–orbit coupling rule in bound fermion systems
J-P Ebran / E Khan / A Mutschler / D Vretenar | 2016
085102
Fluctuations in charged particle multiplicities in relativistic heavy-ion collisions
Maitreyee Mukherjee / Sumit Basu / Subikash Choudhury / Tapan K Nayak | 2016
085103
Continuum discretised BCS approach for weakly bound nuclei
J A Lay / C E Alonso / L Fortunato / A Vitturi | 2016
085104
Electromagnetic selection rules in the triangular α-cluster model of 12C
G Stellin / L Fortunato / A Vitturi | 2016
085201
Double electron capture searches in 74Se
B Lehnert / T Wester / D Degering / D Sommer / L Wagner / K Zuber | 2016