Co-treatment of limonitic laterites and sulphur-bearing materials as an alternative to the HPAL process (English)

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The high pressure acid leach process (HPAL) is being commercially used in four plants around the world to treat limonitic laterites. The two major operating costs of the HPAL process are the sulphuric acid and the energy required to heat the pulp to the desired temperature (>244 deg C). As an alternative to acid injection and steam heating, the in-situ generation of sulphuric acid and heat, produced during the high temperature pressure oxidation of sulphur-bearing materials blended with laterites, has been investigated at the laboratory scale. Various sources of sulphur have been examined, in particular, elemental sulphur, phyrrhotite and a Cu-Ni low-grade bulk concentrate. Under the proper blend ratios, all sulphur sources tested generated sufficient acid to result in equivalent nickel and cobalt dissolutions. A significant improvement to the process economics can result from the addition of sulphur sources containing valuable by-products, such as nickel/cobalt and/or precious metals (gold and PGMs). This is especially true in the latter case, when the HPAL can be operated under Platsol conditions (i.e. with the addition of 5-10 g/L of chloride), to dissolve the base metals and precious metals simultaneously in the autoklave. Various examples of the application of this concept are presented, together with a brief discussion of its implication on the autoclave design and the downstream processes to recover the values from the leach solutions.

Table of contents conference proceedings

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3
Nickel Market Dynamics
Ranieri, S. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
23
Past and Future of Nickel Laterite Projects (abstract only)
Dalvi, A. D. / Bacon, W. G. / Osborne, R. C. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
25
Startup and Reliability of Nickel Laterite Plants
Campbell, F. / McConaghy, E. / Vardill, W. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
43
The Importance of Life-Cycle Assessment Approach to the Evaluation of Environmental Impacts Associated with the Pressure Acid Leach Treatment of Nickel Laterite Ores (abstract only)
Middleton, W. J. / Searles, M. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
45
The Implications of Sustainability in Developing a Nickel Laterite Project
Kemp, D. J. / Wiseman, M. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
55
Beating US$10 per Pound of Installed Capacity for a Laterite Nickel Plant
Dolan, D. S. / Nendick, R. M. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
63
An Alternative Nickel Laterite Project Development Model
Neudorf, D. A. / Huggins, D. A. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
79
Mineralogical Characterization of Nickel Laterites from New Caledonia and Indonesia
Chen, T. T. / Dutrizac, J. E. / Krause, E. / Osborne, R. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
101
Vermelho Nickel Laterite Deposit - Geological Modeling and Resource Estimation Developments
Fonseca, M. B. / Riehl, W. / Ferreira, M. A. A. / Rocha, M. R. / Fleury, D. F. R. / Albuquerque, M. A. C. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
113
Ore Variability Influence on the Metallurgical Process Punta Gorda Nickel Plant
Borjas, N. M. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
121
Ravensthorpe nickel project beneficiation prediction MLR and interpretation of results
Miller, Geoffrey W. / Sampson, Darryl / Fleay, John / Conway-Mortimer, Jerome / Roche, Eric | 2004
121
Ravensthorpe Nickel Project Benefication Prediction MLR and Interpretation of Results
Miller, G. W. / Sampson, D. / Fleay, J. / Conway-Mortimer, J. / Roche, E. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
137
Sechol - A Major New Nickel-Cobalt Province in Guatemala
Valls, R. A. / Magee, J. / Harris, B. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
151
Development of Process Design for Coral Bay Nickel Project
Tsuchida, N. / Ozaki, Y. / Nakai, O. / Kobayashi, H. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
161
A Complete Approach to Flowsheet Development - Niquel do Vermelho (CVRD) Case Study
Adams, M. / van der Meulen, D. / Angove, J. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
171
Development of a Fluid Bed Pyrohydrolysis Process for Inco's Goro Nickel Project
Vahed, A. / Colton, D. F. / Duterque, J.-P. / Karner, W. / Baerhold, F. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
193
Piloting of the Beneficiation and EPAL® Circuits for Ravensthorpe Nickel Operations
Adams, M. / van der Meulen, D. / Czerny, C. / Adamini, P. / Turner, J. / Jayasekera, S. / Aramanti, J. / Mosher, J. / Miller, M. / White, D. et al. | 2004
203
Niquel do Vermhelo Project - Prefeasibility Study
Torres, V. M. / Carmo, O. A. / Evelin, S. S. / Rodriguez, R. L. / Costa, M. L. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
219
The Jaguar Nickel Inc. Sechol Laterite Project - Atmospheric Chloride Leach Process
Harris, G. B. / Magee, T. J. / Lakshmanan, V. I. / Sridhar, R. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
245
Co-Treatment of Limonitic Laterites and Sulphur-Bearing Materials as an Alternative to the HPAL Process
Ferron, C. J. / Fleming, C. A. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
263
Effect of Process Water on High Pressure Sulphuric Acid Leaching of Laterite Ores
Marshall, D. / Buarzaiga, M. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
273
Effect of Eh in the High Pressure Acid Leaching of Nickel Laterite Ores
Johnson, J. / Whittington, B. / McDonald, R. / Muir, D. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
289
Solution Chemistry and Reactor Modelling of the PAL Process: Successes and Challenges
Papangelakis, V. G. / Liu, H. / Rubisov, D. H. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
307
Effect of magnesium content on sulphuric acid consumption during high pressure acid leacing of laterite ores
Marshall, Debbie / Buarzaiga, Mohamed | 2004
307
Effect of Magnesium Content on Sulphuric Acid Consumption During High Pressure Acid Leaching of Laterite Ores
Marshall, D. / Buarzaiga, M. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
317
A Conceptual Design of PAL Using Tube-in-Tube Heat Exchangers
Donaldson, D. J. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
325
Improvement to the Acid Pressure Leaching of Nickel Laterite Ores
Curlook, W. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
335
Co-Simulation in Hydromet Process Design
Oshinowo, L. / Fok, I. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
347
Atmospheric Leaching of Laterites with Iron Precipitation as Goethite
Liu, H. / Gillaspie, J. / Lewis, C. / Neudorf, D. / Barnett, S. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
369
A Fundamental Study of the Leaching Reactions Involved in the Caron Process
Nicol, M. J. / Nikoloski, A. N. / Fittock, J. E. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
385
Direct Atmospheric Leaching of Saprolitic Nickel Laterite Ores with Sulphuric Acid
Curlook, W. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
401
A Study Utilizing Vane Yield Rheometry to Predict Optimum Thickener Performance Across a Range of Laterite Nickel Ores for the Ravensthorpe Nickel Project
McCrabb, L. / Chin, J. / Miller, G. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
415
Flow Array for Nickel Laterite Slurry
Hallbom, D. J. / Klein, B. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
429
Manganese Separation by Solvent Extraction in Nickel Laterite Processing
Cheng, C. Y. / Urbani, M. D. / Houchin, M. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
449
Separation of Ni and Co from Mn, Mg and Ca in Sulphate Laterite Leach Solutions
Legault-Seguin, E. / Alfantazi, A. M. / Dresler, V. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
457
Solvent Extraction Technology for the Extraction of Nickel Using LIX®84-I. An Update and Circuit Comparisons
Mackenzie, J. M. / Virnig, M. J. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
479
Contribution to the Recycling of Rotary Kiln Dust in Nickeliferous Laterite Reduction. Reductive Behavior of the Dust
Rigopoulos, E. / Kostika, I.-P. / Zevgolis, E. N. / Halikia, I. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
479
Conribution to the recycling of rotary kiln dust in nickeliferous laterite reduction. Reductive behavior of the dust
Rigopoulos, Elias / Kostika, Ismene-Polyxeni / Zevgolis, Emmanuel N. / Halikia, Iliana | 2004
493
Calcination and Reduction of Laterite Nickel Ores
Orth, A. / Kerstiens, B. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
503
Liquidus Temperatures of Ferro-Nickel Smelting Slags
Chen, S. / Erasmus, L. / Barnett, S. C. C. / Jak, E. / Hayes, P. C. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
519
Dust Issues from Rotary Devices: Causes and Cures
Riddle, R. K. / Prokesch, M. E. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
527
Treatment of Nickel Ores in Rotary Kilns and Cyclone Reactors
Patzelt, N. / Schmitz, T. / Grund, G. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
545
Developments in Integrated Furnace Controls to Enhance Furnace Operation and Crucible Integrity in Shielded-Arc Laterite Smelting
Stober, F. A. / Gerritsen, T. / Janzen, J. / Kepes, A. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
563
Furnace Technology for Ferro-Nickel Production - An Update
Voermann, N. / Gerritsen, T. / Candy, I. / Stober, F. / Matyas, A. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
579
SPLC - A Power Supply for Smelting Furnaces
Gerritsen, T. / Ma, T. / Sedighy, M. / Janzen, J. / Stober, F. / Voermann, N. / Frias, J. R. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
593
Sixty Years of Caron: Current Assessment
Prado, F. L. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
599
Yabulu 25 Years On
Reid, J. G. / Fittock, J. E. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
619
The Evolution of the Greek Ferronickel Production Process
Zevgolis, E. N. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
633
The Optimisation and Control of Process Chemistry at Bulong Nickel Operations (abstract only)
O Callaghan, J. F. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
635
Two Steps Forward and One Step Back: A Case of Arrested Development in Laterite Processing
Southwick, L. M. / Duda, S. / Todd, F. A. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
657
Reduction in Energy Cost in Cuban Caron Process Plants
Rodriguez, R. I. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
667
The Steps Required to Meet Production Targets at PT INCO, Indonesia: A New Innovative Business Strategy
Doyle, C. / Management and STaff of PT INCO and INCO Technical Services Limited / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
685
Falcondo Revisited
de Jesus Deveaux, E. / Longo, F. G. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
699
Falconbridge Dominicana Reduction Shaft Furnace Advanced Control Development
Ryan, L. / Frias, J. / Rodriguez, P. / Morrow, A. / Boland, M. / Sandoz, D. / Smith, K. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
719
A Historical Overview of the Cerro Matoso Operation 1980 to 2003
Kift, J. R. / Ferrer, C. E. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004
733
Recent Improvement of Reduction Rotary Kiln Operations at Hyuga Smelting Co., Ltd
Moriyama, K. / Yamagiwa, M. / Kaikake, A. / Takano, H. / Minerals, Metals and Materials Society | 2004