Porosity of 3D biomaterial scaffolds and osteogenesis (English)

In: Biomaterials   ;  26 ,  27  ;  5474-5491  ;  2005
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Porosity and pore size of biomaterial scaffolds play a critical role in bone formation in vitro and in vivo. The review explores the state of knowledge regarding the relationship between porosity and pore size of biomaterials used for bone regeneration. The effect of these morphological features on osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo, as well as relationships to mechanical properties of the scaffolds, are addressed. In vitro, lower porosity stimulates osteogenesis by suppressing cell proliferation and forcing cell aggregation. In contrast, in vivo, higher porosity and pore size result in greater bone ingrowth, a conclusion that is supported by the absence of reports that show enhanced osteogenic outcomes for scaffolds with low void volumes. However, this trend results in diminished mechanical properties, thereby setting an upper functional limit for pore size and porosity. Thus, a balance must be reached depending on the repair, rate of remodeling and rate of degradation of the scaffold material. Based on early studies, the minimum requirement for pore size is considered to be nearly 100 micron due to cell size, migration requirements and transport. However, pore sizes >300 micron are recommended, due to enhanced new bone formation and the formation of capillaries. Because of vasculariziation, pore size has been shown to affect the progression of osteogenesis. Small pores favored hypoxic conditions and induced osteochondral formation before osteogenesis, while large pores, that are well-vascularized, lead to direct osteogenesis (without preceding cartilage formation). Gradients in pore sizes are recommended for future studies focused on the formation of multiple tissues and tissue interfaces. New fabrication techniques, such as solid-free form fabrication, can potentially be used to generate scaffolds with morphological and mechanical properties more selectively designed to meet the specificity of bone-repair needs.

Table of contents – Volume 26, Issue 27

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The tables of contents are generated automatically and are based on the data records of the individual contributions available in the index of the TIB portal. The display of the Tables of Contents may therefore be incomplete.

5427
Electrospinning of chitosan dissolved in concentrated acetic acid solution
Geng, Xinying / Kwon, Oh-Hyeong / Jang, Jinho | 2005
5433
Synergistic platelet integrin signaling and factor XII activation in poly-N-acetyl glucosamine fiber-mediated hemostasis
Fischer, Thomas H. / Thatte, Hemant S. / Nichols, Timothy C. / Bender-Neal, Diane E. / A. Bellinger, Dwight / Vournakis, John N. | 2005
5444
In vivo bone regeneration with injectable calcium phosphate biomaterial: A three-dimensional micro-computed tomographic, biomechanical and SEM study
Gauthier, Olivier / Müller, Ralph / von Stechow, Dietrich / Lamy, Bernard / Weiss, Pierre / Bouler, Jean-Michel / Aguado, Eric / Daculsi, Guy | 2005
5454
Biocompatibility analysis of poly(glycerol sebacate) as a nerve guide material
Sundback, Cathryn A. / Shyu, Jeffery Y. / Wang, Yadong / Faquin, William C. / Langer, Robert S. / Vacanti, Joseph P. / Hadlock, Tessa A. | 2005
5465
Bioactivity of titanium following sodium plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition
Maitz, M.F. / Poon, R.W.Y. / Liu, X.Y. / Pham, M.-T. / Chu, Paul K. | 2005
5474
Porosity of 3D biomaterial scaffolds and osteogenesis
Karageorgiou, Vassilis / Kaplan, David | 2005
5492
Cellular response to zinc-containing organoapatite: An in vitro study of proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity and biomineralization
Storrie, Hannah / Stupp, Samuel I. | 2005
5500
Characterization of chitosan#8211polycaprolactone blends for tissue engineering applications
Sarasam, Aparna / Madihally, Sundararajan V. | 2005
5500
Characterization of chitosan–polycaprolactone blends for tissue engineering applications
Sarasam, Aparna / Madihally, Sundararajan V. | 2005
5509
Three-dimensional culture and differentiation of human osteogenic cells in an injectable hydroxypropylmethylcellulose hydrogel
Trojani, Christophe / Weiss, Pierre / Michiels, Jean-François / Vinatier, Claire / Guicheux, Jérôme / Daculsi, Guy / Gaudray, Patrick / Carle, Georges F / Rochet, Nathalie | 2005
5518
Analytically derived material properties of multilaminated extracellular matrix devices using the ball-burst test
Freytes, Donald O. / Rundell, Ann E. / Vande Geest, Jonathan / Vorp, David A. / Webster, Thomas J. / Badylak, Stephen F. | 2005
5532
Damage accumulation, fatigue and creep behaviour of vacuum mixed bone cement
Jeffers, Jonathan R.T. / Browne, Martin / Taylor, Mark | 2005
5542
The complete process of bioresorption and bone replacement using devices made of forged composites of raw hydroxyapatite particles/poly l-lactide (F-u-HA/PLLA)
Shikinami, Yasuo / Matsusue, Yoshitaka / Nakamura, Takashi | 2005
5552
The inhibition of neutrophil antibacterial activity by ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene particles
Bernard, Louis / Vaudaux, Pierre / Merle, Corinne / Stern, Richard / Huggler, Elzbieta / Lew, Daniel / Hoffmeyer, Pierre | 2004
5558
DNA strands robed with ionic liquid moiety
Nishimura, Naomi / Nomura, Yasuhiro / Nakamura, Nobuhumi / Ohno, Hiroyuki | 2005
5564
A method for the molecular imprinting of hemoglobin on silica surfaces using silanes
Shiomi, Toru / Matsui, Masayoshi / Mizukami, Fujio / Sakaguchi, Kengo | 2005
5572
Cell microarrays on photochemically modified polytetrafluoroethylene
Mikulikova, Regina / Moritz, Sieglinde / Gumpenberger, Thomas / Olbrich, Michael / Romanin, Christoph / Bacakova, Lucie / Svorcik, Vaclav / Heitz, Johannes | 2005
5581
Diffusion in three-dimensionally ordered scaffolds with inverted colloidal crystal geometry
Shanbhag, Sachin / Woo Lee, Jung / Kotov, Nicholas | 2005
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