Calibration of a 3D- ball plate (English)

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The presented 3D- ball plate is used for testing machine tools with a workspace of 500 mm x 500 mm x 320 mm. The artefact consists of a 2D- ball plate which is either located by a kinematic correct coupling on a base plate or on a spacer. The spacers are placed between the base plate and the ball plate and are also kinematic coupled to the other elements of the artefact. The kinematic couplings provide a high repeatability of the measurement setup. Because of the specific application the known calibration procedures for 2D- ball plates are not applicable. A calibration method for the pseudo 3D- artefact on a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is presented, with the aim to minimise the influence of geometric CMM errors. Therefore a computer simulation is used to analyse the effects of these disturbing errors on the calibration of the ball plate and the spacers. Using a reversal method, the plate is measured at four different horizontal positions after rotating around its vertical axis. A couple of the CMM errors, e.g. a squareness error COY between the X- and Y- axis of the CMM, can be eliminated by that method - others have to be determined with additional measurements, e.g. the positioning errors EXX or EYY of the X- respectively Y- axis. The paper also contains a measurement uncertainty estimation for the calibration by use of experiments, tolerances and Monte-Carlo-simulations. The achieved uncertainty for ball positions in the working volume is less than 2.1 micrometer (coverage factor k = 2).

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