EXERCISE TRAINING AND SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM ACTIVITY: EVIDENCE FOR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY DEPENDENT NEURAL PLASTICITY (English)

In: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology   ;  34 ,  4  ;  377-384  ;  2007

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It has been generally accepted that regular physical activity is associated with beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In fact, the idea that exercise maintains cardiovascular health is evident by the direct links between a sedentary lifestyle and the risk of cardiovascular and other disease states.

Cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and heart failure, are often associated with sympathetic nervous system (SNS) overactivity. Conversely, exercise has been shown to reduce hypertension and decrease elevated SNS activity. In addition, there is evidence that exercise may reduce resting blood pressure and sympathetic outflow in normal individuals.

Although somewhat controversial in humans, evidence from animal studies also indicates that exercise training reduces baroreflex‐mediated and other forms of sympathoexcitation in normal individuals. Collectively, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that physical activity may decrease, and physical inactivity may increase, the incidence of cardiovascular disease via alterations in SNS activity. Despite the important clinical implications of this possibility, the mechanisms by which exercise alters control of SNS activity remain to be fully elucidated.

Recent evidence suggests that central nervous system (CNS) plasticity occurs under a variety of conditions, including varying levels of physical activity. The purpose of the present brief review is to provide evidence that changes within the CNS contribute importantly to altered regulation of the SNS observed following exercise training. The primary hypothesis is that physical activity versus inactivity produces plasticity within neural networks that regulate SNS activity. This hypothesis is supported by published and preliminary data that suggest that exercise training may reduce sympathoexcitation by reducing activation of neurons within cardiovascular regions of the brain. These mechanisms are likely to be important in disease states of sympathetic overactivity and in normal healthy individuals whose risk of cardiovascular disease is reduced by leading an active versus sedentary lifestyle.

Table of contents – Volume 34, Issue 4

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255
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PATHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CARDIAC HYPERTROPHY: NOVEL THERAPEUTIC STRATEGIES TO TREAT HEART FAILURE
McMullen, Julie R / Jennings, Garry L | 2007
263
INVESTIGATION OF THE MICROCIRCULATION AND THE STATE OF OXIDATIVE STRESS IN THE RAT AFTER SCORPION ENVENOMATION
Sahnoun, Z / Chaker‐Krichen, S / Kassis, M / Hakim, A / Hammami, S / Ghozzi, H / Bouayed, N / Bellasfar, Z / Zeghal, KM / Rebai, T | 2007
269
SPATIAL PULMONARY FLOW DISTRIBUTION IN RABBIT ISOLATED LUNGS IS A POOR REPRESENTATION OF THE SITUATION IN VIVO*
Hübler, M / Heller, AR / Bleyl, JU / Rössel, T / Stehr, SN / Koch, T | 2007
274
EFFECT OF HIGH SALT INTAKE ON LOCAL RENIN–ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM AND VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION FOLLOWING MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN RATS
De Resende, Micheline M / Mill, José G | 2007
280
INVOLVEMENT OF THE ENDOTHELIN ETB RECEPTOR IN GENDER DIFFERENCES IN DEOXYCORTICOSTERONE ACETATE‐SALT‐INDUCED HYPERTENSION
Kawanishi, Hideaki / Hasegawa, Youichi / Nakano, Daisuke / Ohkita, Mamoru / Takaoka, Masanori / Ohno, Yukihiro / Matsumura, Yasuo | 2007
286
IDENTIFICATION OF LIGANDS BINDING SPECIFICALLY TO INFLAMMATORY INTESTINAL MUCOSA USING PHAGE DISPLAY
Takagi, Tamaki / Arisawa, Tomiyasu / Yamamoto, Kazumasa / Hirata, Ichiro / Nakano, Hiroshi / Sawada, Makoto | 2007
290
PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS OF A NITRIC OXIDE‐RELEASING DERIVATIVE OF ENALAPRIL IN MALE BEAGLES
Okuyama, Cristina E / Mendes, Gustavo Duarte / Faro, Renato / Rezende, Vinicius M / Lagos, Rodolfo Monaco / Astigarraga, Rafael E B / Antunes, Edson / De Nucci, Gilberto | 2007
296
MORPHOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHANGES IN P‐GLYCOPROTEIN DURING DEXAMETHASONE‐INDUCED HEPATOMEGALY
Micuda, Stanislav / Fuksa, Leos / Mundlova, Lucie / Osterreicher, Jan / Mokry, Jaroslav / Cermanova, Jolana / Brcakova, Eva / Staud, Frantisek / Pokorna, Pavla / Martinkova, Jirina | 2007
304
INHIBITION OF NAD(P)H OXIDASE REDUCES FIBRONECTIN EXPRESSION IN STROKE‐PRONE RENOVASCULAR HYPERTENSIVE RAT BRAIN
Cui, Chunmei / Chen, Alex F / Jiang, Zongpei / Wu, Qingqing / Lin, Jianwen / Wen, Hongmei / Zeng, Jinsheng | 2007
310
CALCIUM ANTAGONIST PROPERTY OF CPU228, A DOFETILIDE DERIVATIVE, CONTRIBUTES TO ITS LOW INCIDENCE OF TORSADES DE POINTES IN RABBITS
Huang, Zhi‐Jiang / Dai, De‐Zai / Li, Na / Na, Tao / Ji, Min / Dai, Yin | 2007
318
DOES NITRIC OXIDE MODULATE TRANSMITTER RELEASE AT THE MAMMALIAN NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION?
Nickels, Travis J / Reed, Grant W / Drummond, Justin T / Blevins, Dustin E / Lutz, Megan C / Wilson, David F | 2007
327
NITRIC OXIDE, ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION AND BETA‐BLOCKER TREATMENT (MR NOED STUDY): BENEFIT OF NEBIVOLOL VERSUS METOPROLOL IN HYPERTENSIVE MEN
Brixius, K / Middeke, M / Lichtenthal, A / Jahn, E / Schwinger, R H G | 2007
332
EFFECTS OF HYPOXIA/REPERFUSION INJURY ON DRUG DISPOSITION IN THE RAT ISOLATED PERFUSED LIVER
Arab, HA / Cheung, K / Hickman, PE / Potter, JM / Kadkhodaee, M / Roberts, MS | 2007
339
INHIBITION OF INDUCIBLE NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE ATTENUATES ACUTE ENDOTOXIN‐INDUCED LUNG INJURY IN RATS
Su, Chain Fa / Yang, Fwu Lin / Chen, Hsing I | 2007
347
ADMINISTRATION OF EXOGENOUS ERYTHROPOIETIN β AFFECTS LIPID PEROXIDATION AND SERUM PARAOXONASE‐1 ACTIVITY AND CONCENTRATION IN PREDIALYSIS PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC RENAL DISEASE AND ANAEMIA
Marsillach, Judit / Martínez‐Vea, Albert / Marcas, Luis / Mackness, Bharti / Mackness, Michael / Ferré, Natàlia / Joven, Jorge / Camps, Jordi | 2007
347
ADMINISTRATION OF EXOGENOUS ERYTHROPOIETIN b AFFECTS LIPID PEROXIDATION AND SERUM PARAOXONASE-1 ACTIVITY AND CONCENTRATION IN PREDIALYSIS PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC RENAL DISEASE AND ANAEMIA:
Marsillach, J. / Martinez-Vea, A. / Marcas, L. / Mackness, B. / Mackness, M. / Ferre, N. / Joven, J. / Camps, J. | 2007
350
METHODS OF ANALYSIS AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RELEVANCE OF RHYTHMS IN SYMPATHETIC NERVE DISCHARGE
Barman, Susan M / Kenney, Michael J | 2007
356
SYMPATHETIC RHYTHMS AND NERVOUS INTEGRATION
Gilbey, Michael P | 2007
362
IDENTIFICATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL MECHANISMS BY POWER SPECTRAL ANALYSIS
Stauss, Harald M | 2007
369
DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF VASOPRESSINERGIC AND OXYTOCINERGIC PRE‐AUTONOMIC NEURONS ON CIRCULATORY CONTROL: REFLEX MECHANISMS AND CHANGES DURING EXERCISE
Michelini, Lisete Compagno | 2007
377
EXERCISE TRAINING AND SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM ACTIVITY: EVIDENCE FOR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY DEPENDENT NEURAL PLASTICITY
Mueller, Patrick J | 2007
385
CORRIGENDUM
| 2007