Paleonutrient and productivity records from the subarctic North Pacific for Pleistocene glacial terminations I to V (English)

In: Paleoceanography   ;  23 ,  4  ;  2008

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Our study addresses fundamental questions of the mode and timing of orbital and millennial‐scale changes in the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) of the subarctic North Pacific. Particular concerns are the vertical mixing, the present and past abundance of nutrients in surface waters despite strong stratification, and the North Pacific–North Atlantic seesaw of oscillations in sea surface temperature (SST). We do this by generating and interpreting multiple records for glacial terminations I–V down two long piston cores, one each from the western and eastern subarctic Pacific. Chlorins and biogenic opal are proxies for surface water productivity; δ13C of epibenthic foraminifera is a record of deepwater ventilation; and the δ13C of N. pachydermasin. is a tracer of nutrients in subsurface waters that extend up to the sea surface during times of vertical mixing. The degree of mixing is traced by pairing SST and δ18O records of planktic surface and subsurface (pycnocline) dwellers. Tight age control is deduced from a suite of age‐calibrated 14C plateau boundaries for Termination I and benthic δ18O and geomagnetic events for the last 800 ka. Carbon 14 paleoreservoir ages record the ages of surface and deep waters to uncover short‐term changes in MOC over Termination I. We have defined a standard sequence of short‐term productivity events for Termination I, also evident during terminations II to V and subsequent interglacials over the last 450 ka. The peak glacial regime of stable stratification and low productivity terminated, together with the end of ice rafting and melting, near 17 ka, ∼2000 years after the onset of Termination I. Pulses of vertical mixing and incursion of warm surface waters from the subtropics followed. Convected young water masses finally penetrated down to 3600‐m water depth at 17.0 to less than 14.5 ka, significantly improving bottom water ventilation through the late deglacial and earliest interglacial. Mixing with upwelled nutrients from the pycnocline induced short‐term maxima in algal production of chlorins and biogenic opal near 17–15 and 15–12 ka, respectively. Deglacial meltwater incursions in the Aleutian Current and silica input from North American rivers also promoted East Pacific productivity after 15.5 ka. Productivity decreased during the late deglacial and early interglacial, coeval with an exceptional peak in CaCO3 preservation caused by both low organic flux and well‐ventilated deepwater. Subsequently, low salinity and cool surface waters and in turn, stratification were gradually restored. A second, opal‐dominated productivity maximum marked the ends of interglacials. The deglacial pulses of vertical mixing around 17–11 ka imply an important contribution of the North Pacific to the coeval release of oceanic CO2 into the atmosphere and support the east‐west seesaw model of climate change.

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PA4202
A modeling assessment of the interplay between aeolian iron fluxes and iron-binding ligands in controlling carbon dioxide fluctuations during Antarctic warm events (DOI 10.1029/2007PA001531)
Parekh, P. / Joos, F. / Muller, S.A. | 2008
PA4214
Expansion of subarctic water masses in the North Atlantic and Pacific oceans and implications for mid-Pleistocene ice sheet growth (DOI 10.1029/2008PA001622)
McClymont, E.L. / Rosell-Mele, A. / Haug, G.H. / Lloyd, J.M. | 2008
Expansion of subarctic water masses in the North Atlantic and Pacific oceans and implications for mid‐Pleistocene ice sheet growth
McClymont, Erin L. / Rosell‐Melé, Antoni / Haug, Gerald H. / Lloyd, Jerry M. | 2008
Correction to “Refining ancient carbon dioxide estimates: Significance of coccolithophore cell size for alkenone‐based pCO2 records”
Henderiks, Jorijntje / Pagani, Mark | 2008
Northern timing of deglaciation in the eastern equatorial Pacific from alkenone paleothermometry (DOI 10.1029/2008PA001593)
Koutavas, A. / Sachs, J.P. | 2008
Paleonutrient and productivity records from the subarctic North Pacific for Pleistocene glacial terminations I to V (DOI 10.1029/2007PA001513)
Gebhardt, H. / Sarnthein, M. / Grootes, P.M. / Kiefer, T. / Kuehn, H. / Schmieder, F. / Rohl, U. | 2008
How important are Southern Hemisphere wind changes for low glacial carbon dioxide? A model study
Tschumi, T. / Joos, F. / Parekh, P. | 2008
Coupled sea surface temperature–seawater δ18O reconstructions in the Arabian Sea at the millennial scale for the last 35 ka
Anand, Pallavi / Kroon, Dick / Singh, Arun Deo / Ganeshram, Raja S. / Ganssen, Gerald / Elderfield, Henry | 2008
Sensitivity of the glacial ocean to Heinrich events from different iceberg sources, as modeled by a coupled atmosphere‐iceberg‐ocean model
Levine, Richard C. / Bigg, Grant R. | 2008
Basinal restriction, black shales, Re‐Os dating, and the Early Toarcian (Jurassic) oceanic anoxic event
McArthur, J. M. / Algeo, T. J. / van de Schootbrugge, B. / Li, Q. / Howarth, R. J. | 2008
Major shifts in calcareous phytoplankton assemblages through the Eocene‐Oligocene transition of Tanzania and their implications for low‐latitude primary production
Dunkley Jones, Tom / Bown, Paul R. / Pearson, Paul N. / Wade, Bridget S. / Coxall, Helen K. / Lear, Caroline H. | 2008
Oceanographic and climatic evolution of the Miocene Mediterranean deduced from Nd, Sr, C, and O isotope compositions of marine fossils and sediments (DOI 10.1029/2007PA001540)
Kocsis, L. / Vennemann, T.W. / Fontignie, D. / Baumgartner, C. / Montanari, A. / Jelen, B. | 2008
Coupled sea surface temperature-seawater delta ^1^8O reconstructions in the Arabian Sea at the millennial scale for the last 35 ka (DOI 10.1029/2007PA001564)
Anand, P. / Kroon, D. / Singh, A.D. / Ganeshram, R.S. / Ganssen, G. / Elderfield, H. | 2008
Southern Hemisphere forcing of Pliocene delta ^1^8O and the evolution of Indo-Asian monsoons (DOI 10.1029/2008PA001638)
Clemens, S.C. / Prell, W.L. / Sun, Y. / Liu, Z. / Chen, G. | 2008
Sensitivity of the glacial ocean to Heinrich events from different iceberg sources, as modeled by a coupled atmosphere-iceberg-ocean model (DOI 10.1029/2008PA001613)
Levine, R.C. / Bigg, G.R. | 2008
Sahel megadroughts triggered by glacial slowdowns of Atlantic meridional overturning
Mulitza, Stefan / Prange, Matthias / Stuut, Jan‐Berend / Zabel, Matthias / von Dobeneck, Tilo / Itambi, Achakie C. / Nizou, Jean / Schulz, Michael / Wefer, Gerold | 2008
Oceanographic and climatic evolution of the Miocene Mediterranean deduced from Nd, Sr, C, and O isotope compositions of marine fossils and sediments
Kocsis, L. / Vennemann, T. W. / Fontignie, D. / Baumgartner, C. / Montanari, A. / Jelen, B. | 2008
Onset of “Hudson Strait” Heinrich events in the eastern North Atlantic at the end of the middle Pleistocene transition (∼640 ka)?
Hodell, David A. / Channell, James E. T. / Curtis, Jason H. / Romero, Oscar E. / Röhl, Ursula | 2008
Correction to “Piston core record of Late Paleogene (31 Ma) to recent seafloor hydrothermal activity in the Southwest Pacific Basin”
Stancin, Andrea M. / Gleason, James D. / Owen, Robert M. / Rea, David K. / Blum, Joel D. | 2008
Northern timing of deglaciation in the eastern equatorial Pacific from alkenone paleothermometry
Koutavas, Athanasios / Sachs, Julian P. | 2008
A modeling assessment of the interplay between aeolian iron fluxes and iron‐binding ligands in controlling carbon dioxide fluctuations during Antarctic warm events
Parekh, Payal / Joos, Fortunat / Müller, Simon A. | 2008
Southern Hemisphere forcing of Pliocene δ18O and the evolution of Indo‐Asian monsoons
Clemens, Steven C. / Prell, Warren L. / Sun, Youbin / Liu, Zhengyu / Chen, Guangshan | 2008
Onset of ``Hudson Strait'' Heinrich events in the eastern North Atlantic at the end of the middle Pleistocene transition (∼640 ka)? (DOI 10.1029/2008PA001591)
Hodell, D.A. / Channell, J.E.T. / Curtis, J.H. / Romero, O.E. / Rohl, U. | 2008
Diatom δ13C, δ15N, and C/N since the Last Glacial Maximum in the Southern Ocean: Potential impact of Species Composition
Jacot Des Combes, H. / Esper, O. / De La Rocha, C. L. / Abelmann, A. / Gersonde, R. / Yam, R. / Shemesh, A. | 2008
Paleonutrient and productivity records from the subarctic North Pacific for Pleistocene glacial terminations I to V
Gebhardt, Holger / Sarnthein, Michael / Grootes, Pieter M. / Kiefer, Thorsten / Kuehn, Hartmut / Schmieder, Frank / Röhl, Ursula | 2008
Evidence for a major change in silicon cycling in the subarctic North Pacific at 2.73 Ma
Reynolds, B. C. / Frank, M. / Halliday, A. N. | 2008
How important are Southern Hemisphere wind changes for low glacial carbon dioxide? A model study (DOI 10.1029/2008PA001592)
Tschumi, T. / Joos, F. / Parekh, P. | 2008
Eustatic variations during the Paleocene-Eocene greenhouse world (DOI 10.1029/2008PA001615)
Sluijs, A. / Brinkhuis, H. / Crouch, E.M. / John, C.M. / Handley, L. / Munsterman, D. / Bohaty, S.M. / Zachos, J.C. / Reichart, G.-J. / Schouten, S. | 2008
Major shifts in calcareous phytoplankton assemblages through the Eocene-Oligocene transition of Tanzania and their implications for low-latitude primary production (DOI 10.1029/2008PA001640)
Jones, T.D. / Bown, P.R. / Pearson, P.N. / Wade, B.S. / Coxall, H.K. / Lear, C.H. | 2008
Basinal restriction, black shales, Re-Os dating, and the Early Toarcian (Jurassic) oceanic anoxic event (DOI 10.1029/2008PA001607)
McArthur, J.M. / Algeo, T.J. / van de Schootbrugge, B. / Li, Q. / Howarth, R.J. | 2008
Climate and marine carbon cycle response to changes in the strength of the Southern Hemispheric westerlies
Menviel, L. / Timmermann, A. / Mouchet, A. / Timm, O. | 2008
Eustatic variations during the Paleocene‐Eocene greenhouse world
Sluijs, Appy / Brinkhuis, Henk / Crouch, Erica M. / John, Cédric M. / Handley, Luke / Munsterman, Dirk / Bohaty, Steven M. / Zachos, James C. / Reichart, Gert‐Jan / Schouten, Stefan et al. | 2008
Diatom delta ^1^3C, delta ^1^5N, and C/N since the Last Glacial Maximum in the Southern Ocean: Potential impact of Species Composition (DOI 10.1029/2008PA001589)
Combes, H.J.D. / Esper, O. / De La Rocha, C.L. / Abelmann, A. / Gersonde, R. / Yam, R. / Shemesh, A. | 2008
Evidence for a major change in silicon cycling in the subarctic North Pacific at 2.73 Ma (DOI 10.1029/2007PA001563)
Reynolds, B.C. / Frank, M. / Halliday, A.N. | 2008
Climate and marine carbon cycle response to changes in the strength of the Southern Hemispheric westerlies (DOI 10.1029/2008PA001604)
Menviel, L. / Timmermann, A. / Mouchet, A. / Timm, O. | 2008
Sahel megadroughts triggered by glacial slowdowns of Atlantic meridional overturning (DOI 10.1029/2008PA001637)
Mulitza, S. / Prange, M. / Stuut, J.-B. / Zabel, M. / von Dobeneck, T. / Itambi, A.C. / Nizou, J. / Schulz, M. / Wefer, G. | 2008