Climatic warming and permafrost (English)

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Permafrost is dependent upon the ambient temperature for its existence and is sensitive to climatic changes. Conduction heat transfer relations, with thawing and geothermal heat flow, are presented to predict the transient effects of surface temperature changes on the thermal state of permafrost. These relations can be used to examine past climate changes that could have resulted in the present permafrost thermal state. A number of phenomena may affect the thermal regime of permafrost, however some of these are not directly related to climate change, and may lead to spurious conclusions as to past climate warming. It is critical to understand the physical processes controlling the temperature and active layer of permafrost and to accurately relate them to past climate change. It is also possible to estimate the effect of climate change scenarios, manifested by air and surface temperature changes, on permafrost degradation. Realistic assessments require that the initial thermal regime of the permafrost be accurately known. Relatively small amounts of permafrost will disappear within 50–100 years due to the usual global warming scenarios.

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Some observations on the historical development of conduction heat transfer
Cheng, Kwo Chang | 1999
Numerical and experimental investigation on frosting of energy-recovery ventilator
Bilodeau, Stephane / Mercadier, Yves / Brousseau, Patrick | 1999
Melting of unfixed material inside an elliptical capsule
Fomin, Sergei / Wilchinsky, Alexander / Saitoh, Takeo | 1999
Experimental study on the critical heat flux of ice accretion along a fine wire immersed in a cold air flow with water spray
Fumoto, Koji / Yamagishi, Hideaki / Fukusako, Shoichrou | 1999
The characteristics of frost growth on parallel plates
Han, Heung Do / Ro, Sung Tack | 1999
Effect of ultrasonic waves on freezing of supercooled water
Hozumi, Tsutomu / Saito, Akio / Okawa, Seiji | 1999
Numerical modeling of dendritic ice crystals
Ishikawa, Masaaki / Oosthuizen, Patrick H. / Hirata, Tetsuo | 1999
Measurement of temperature and velocity fields of freezing water using liquid crystal tracers
Kowalewski, Tomasz A. | 1999
Heat transfer enhancement of a direct contact melting process by oscillating motion
Oka, Mineo | 1999
Permeability of an aqueous solution in a state of partial solidification
Okada, Masashi / Kang, Chaedong / Okiyama, Haruhiko | 1999
Lateral freezing of a porous medium saturated with an aqueous salt solution
Song, Muyngho / Viskanta, Raymond | 1999
Spontaneous melting of ice in a CaCl2 solution
Sugawara, Masahiro / Tago, Makoto | 1999
An analytic solution prescribing the time-dependent formation of a solid crust inside a convectively cooled plane channel
Weigand, Bernhard / Arnal, Michel / Lipnicki, Zygmunt | 1999
Melting heat-transfer characteristics of an inclined ice plate immersed in a hydrophobic liquid
Yamada, Masahiko / Fukusako, Shoichiro / Kawanami, Tsuyoshi / Hirano, Shigeki | 1999
Plane flow of an ice sheet exhibiting strain-induced anisotropy
Gagliardini, Oliver / Meyssonnier, Jacques | 1999
A meso-macro model for the description of induced anisotropy of natural ice, including grain interaction
Gödert, Günter | 1999
Classical mixture models for polythermal ice
Hutter, Kolumban / Svendsen, Bob | 1999
Modelling the ice single-crystal viscoplastic behaviour
Mansuy, Philippe / Meyssonnier, Jacques / Philip, Armelle | 1999
Remarks on self-consistent modelling of polycrystalline ice
Meyssonnier, Jacques / Philip, Armelle | 1999
Anisotropic isothermal ice-cap flow with the shallow ice approximation
Philip, Armelle / Meyssonnier, Jacques | 1999
Orthotropic viscous model for ice
Staroszczyk, Ryszard / Morland, Leslie W. | 1999
Tertiary flow relations for compression and shear components in combined stress tests on ice
Warner, Roland C. / Jacka, T. H. / Jun, Li / Budd, W. F. | 1999
An iterative solution procedure for shallow stokes flows. The shallow ice approximation revisited
Baral, Dambaru Raj / Hutter, Kolumban | 1999
Nested high-resolution modelling of the greenland summit region
Greve, Ralf / Mügge, Bernd / Baral, Dambaru / Albrecht, Olaf / Savvin, Alexey | 1999
Numerical age computation of the antarctic ice sheet for dating deep ice cores
Mügge, Bernd / Savvin, Alexey / Calov, Reinhard / Greve, Ralf | 1999
Three-dimensional isothermal boundary layer solutions of slow creeping ice flows based on the shallow ice approximation
Savvin, Alexey A. / Hutter, Kolumban / Dorfmann, Alexander A. | 1999
A comparison study between two visco-plastic sea-ice models
Tremblay, Louis-Bruno | 1999
Influence of ice accumulation distribution on ice sheet stability
Wilchinsky, Alexander V. | 1999
A computational procedure for instationary temperature-dependent snow creep
Bartelt, Perry / Christen, Marc | 1999
Transformation of the snow crystal to a particle of ice
Guseva-Lozinski, Elena | 1999
Temperature and temperature gradient dependence of snow recrystallization in depth hoar snow
Kamata, Yasushi / Sokratov, Sergey A. / Sato, Atsushi | 1999
On creep flow of snow and firn
Meussen, Bernhard | 1999
Relation of temperature gradient to heat transfer in snow
Sokratov, Sergey A. / Kamata, Yasushi / Sato, Atsushi | 1999
Methods of similitude in granular avalanche flows
Tai, Yih-Chin / Wang, Yongqi / Gray, J. M. N. T. / Hutter, Kolumban | 1999
Experimental study of gas hydrate formation in porous media
Chuvilin, Evgeny M. / Yakushev, Vladimir S. / Perlova, Elena V. | 1999
Electroacoustic technique to study changes in the liquid phase state of frozen soils
Frolov, Anatoly D. / Kravchenko, Vadim B. / Pavlov, Andrei S. | 1999
Permeability effects on winter-time natural convection in gravel embankments
Goering, Douglas J. / Kumar, Pankaj | 1999
Barothermic effect and temperature regime of frozen soil
Gorelik, Jacob B. / Kolunin, Vladimir S. / Reshetnikov, Aleksy K. | 1999
Detecting alpine permafrost using electro-magnetic methods
Hauck, Christian / Mühll, Daniel Vonder | 1999
Climatic warming and permafrost
Lunardini, Virgil J. | 1999
The monitoring and prediction of permafrost temperature, distribution and geocryological processes within russia under global climate changes
Pavlov, Alexander / Grechishchev, Stanislav | 1999
Thermally induced temporal strain variations in rock walls observed at subzero temperatures
Wegmann, Matthias / Gudmundsson, G. Hilmar | 1999
Soil microstructure and the thermodynamic behaviour of permafrost affected soils
White, Thomas Leslie | 1999
Heat transfer in heat storage arrangements under melting
Alexeev, Vladimir A. | 1999
Microscale analysis of ice crystals made from aqueous solutions by scanning tunneling microscope
Inada, Takaaki / Yabe, Akira / Saito, Tsuyoshi / Lu, Shu-Shen / Zhang, Xu / Yoshimura, Kenji / Tanaka, Makoto / Grandum, Svein | 1999
Development study of a novel tower-style tank for simultaneous storing warm water and ice
Kitamura, Kunihiko / Kurokawa, Keiji / Inatomi, Yasutoshi / Fukushima, Itsunari / Miyatake, Osamu | 1999
Latent heat storage in a fixed-bed packed with cross-linked polymer particles
Morita, Hiroki / Miyatake, Osamu | 1999
Development of an efficient static-type ice thermal energy storage vessel using a low concentration aqueous solution
Sasaguchi, Kengo / Yoshiyama, Tomoaki / Nozoe, Testushi / Baba, Yoshiyuki | 1999
Heat storage for a bus petrol internal-combustion engine
Vasiliev, Leonard L. / Burak, Victor S. / Kulakov, Andry G. / Mishkinis, Donatas A. / Bohan, Pavel V. | 1999
Heat pumps and heat pipes for applications in cold regions
Vasiliev, Leonard L. | 1999